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Reliable determinations of non- ortho PCBs in food have been performed by high-resolution MS, as demonstrated in interlaboratory studies. Diphtheria antitoxin was administered; polymerase chain reaction testing of a membrane sample was positive for Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin genes at CDC. The observed hepatic sequestration is probably due to binding to constitutive rather than induced CYP 1A2 proteins, as, in humans, CYP 1A2 is primarily expressed constitutively and induced in the liver Diliberto et al. TCDD had no effect on the body-weight gain of dams during gestation or on the weight of male pups during the assessment period. The deaths occurred only at the highest dose, four females dying during the 13 weeks of treatment and two males and two females dying between 14 and 49 days during the week post-dosing observation period.

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Society quiz and games night. The battle for the ribosome — how viruses manipulate host translation. The games microbes play: The global virome — the scope, causes and consequences of viral diversity. The magic of mushrooms in nature and industry. Unilever Colworth Prize Lecture — Translating findings from bacterial whole genome sequencing into clinical practice and public health policy. Negative strand RNA viruses.

Positive strand and double strand RNA viruses. The scope, causes and consequences of viral diversity. Teaching microbiology in higher education This half-day symposium will present several interactive sessions which aim to bring delegates together to discuss and share innovative ways of teaching.

Monday 09 April, Afternoon Pre-Conference session: Using digital platforms for teaching in higher education: Coffee break Hall 3.

Novel techniques in the lecture theatre: Offered paper - Beyond creation learning and creative teaching: Next steps — what have we learned and what's the output?

Pre-Conference networking workshop Hall 11a. Tuesday 10 April, Morning Registration open. Offered paper - Cutibacterium acnes formerly Propionibacterium acnes is able to tailor its biofilm formation to environmental cues and increase biofilm formation in Staphylococcus species Helen Brown Cardiff University, UK , Hall Offered paper - How do bacteria affect Candida albicans cell wall structure in the gut? Exhibition and refreshments Hall 3. Flash poster presentation - Investigation of anti-bacterial strategies deployed by a clinical isolate of Serratia marcescens Connor Bowen University of Dundee, UK , Hall Emerging model systems Our understanding of eukaryotic cell biology is based on our ability to manipulate experimental systems.

Why new experimentally tractable organisms from key taxa will provide important insights into eukaryotic biology Inaki Ruiz-Trillo Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain , Hall 8a. Offered paper - Conserved outer membrane proteins potentially involved in the modulation of intestinal colonisation as possible antigen candidates to prevent enterohaemorrhagic E. Offered paper - Exploitation of random transposon mutagenesis to reveal conditionally essential genes important for antibiotic resistance Emily Goodall University of Birmingham, UK , Hall 5.

Offered paper - One Health genomic surveillance of E. Microbial diversity and interactions in the environment Session sponsored by MP Biomedicals Our understanding of microbial diversity, both phylogenetic and functional, continues to expand, including the realisation that a key factor in understanding the importance of microbial diversity is the interaction between organisms. Tracking the dynamics of antibiotic resistome in the environment: Offered paper - From glaciers to genomes Vitamins in the sea: Microbial systems ecology for unravelling key functions in situ Paul Wilmes University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg , Hall 9.

Models for understanding host—pathogen interactions The immune system is our main defence against microbial pathogens. Offered paper - Development of a microaerobic mucin-producing human intestinal culture system to investigate the influence of commensal bacteria on enteropathogenic E. Brain infection and activation of neuronal repair mechanisms by human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in Galleria mellonella Krishnendu Mukherjee University Giessen, Germany , Hall 11a.

The global virome — the scope, causes and consequences of viral diversity Modern sequencing is revealing the existence of huge numbers of viruses, many of which are related to agents that we recognise and many of which are totally new.

The genomic underpinnings of eukaryotic virus taxonomy: Offered paper - Evasion of a potent inhibitor by human cytomegalovirus is achieved by utilising an entry pathway independent of heparin sulfate proteoglycans but sensitises it to neutralising antibody responses Matthew J Murray UCL, UK , Hall 1. Offered paper - Investigations into the dynamics of paramyxovirus infections by high-throughput sequencing Elizabeth Wignall-Fleming University of Glasgow, UK , Hall 1.

A small glimpse into the genetic diversity of arthropod-associated viruses Sandra Junglen University of Bonn, Germany , Hall 1. Lunch and exhibition Hall 3. Offered paper - Host-associated niche metabolism controls enteric infection through fine-tuning of type 3 secretion and a co-ordinated suite of effector proteins James Connolly University of Glasgow, UK , Hall Offered paper - Friend or foe: Flash poster presentation - Identification of a staphylococcal complement inhibitor with broad host specificity in equid S.

Offered paper - A new model for investigating the evolution and cell biology of eukaryotes: The role of plasmids in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli Alessandra Carattoli Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy , Hall 5. Offered paper - Comparative genomics of commensal and invasive E. Offered paper - Investigating factors influencing E. Offered paper - The role of the nitrogen stress response in persistence of nitrogen starved non-pathogenic and uropathogenic Escherichia coli Dan Brown Imperial College London, UK , Hall 5.

Offered paper - Genomic insights into the virulence capacity of soil-persistent E. Offered paper - Application of high throughput approaches to study the laboratory-based evolution of E. Soil microbial communities as modulators of ecosystem responses to climate change in drylands Fernando T. Host—pathogen interaction made clear: Modelling Aspergillus infections in larval zebrafish reveals differences in the immune response, pathogen clearance, and infection outcome depending on the specific host—pathogen context Emily Rosowski University of Wisconsin, USA , Hall 11a.

Offered paper - A novel ex vivo skin explant biofilm model for evaluating the effect of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy and iberin treatment towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms Amal Al-Bakri The University of Jordan, Jordan , Hall 11a. Offered paper - Towards the identification of novel host or bacterial-associated biomarkers to predict sepsis Heather M. May virus taxonomy become a branch of evolutionary studies?

Bacteriophages in unlikely places: The genomic ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza and other viruses in natural populations Oliver Pybus University of Oxford, UK , Hall 1. Drinks reception and poster presentation Hall 3. Society quiz and games night Shooters. Wednesday 11 April, Morning Registration open Hall 1.

Offered paper - Differences in plasmidome content of hospital and non-hospital isolates of Enterococcus faecium Anita Schürch University Medical Center, Netherlands , Hall Offered paper - Could adhesins be the key to the difference in pathogenic capabilities between non typeable Haemophilus influenzae NTHi and H.

Offered paper - Fusobacterium nucleatum — friend or foe? Up close and personal with whole genome sequencing: Offered paper - Linking Phenotype to Genotype: Offered paper - The type VI secretion system of Klebsiella pneumoniae: Flash poster presentation - Investigating epigenetic regulation by type I restriction modification in a historic collection of Staphylococcus aureus isolates Rebecca Mekler University of St Andrews, UK , Hall Flash poster presentation - Functional characterisation of p ppGpp synthetases: Flash poster presentation - The diversity and mobility of toxin antitoxin systems in a large dataset of Klebsiella spp.

The different scales of microevolution in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O and relationship with zoonotic threat David Gally University of Edinburgh, UK , Hall 5. Offered paper - High resolution mutagenesis analysis of the genetic requirements for anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli in the presence of nitrate Finbar Buttimer University College Cork, Ireland , Hall 5.

Offered paper - Ethanolamine metabolism in E. Conclusion and wrap-up Hall 11b. Copper alloy surfaces collapse bacterial copper homeostasis and reduce infection rates Bill Keevil University of Southampton, UK , Hall 6. A new and emerging HGT locus in Staphylococcus aureus outbreak strains confers hyper resistance to antibacterial copper and promotes macrophage survival Julie Morrissey University of Leicester, UK , Hall 6. Flash poster - A potential novel iron uptake system reserved to Bifidobacterium longum subsp.

Flash poster - Mobile genetic element-encoded hypertolerance to copper protects Staphylococcus aureus from killing by host phagocytes Dr.

Zinc at the host—pathogen interface: Offered paper - Who's for TE? The battle for the ribosome — how viruses manipulate host translation The successful replication of all viruses, regardless of whether they have an RNA or DNA genome, relies on the translation of their proteins by the cellular translation machinery.

Flavivirus infection uncouples translation suppression from cellular stress responses Alessia Ruggieri Universitäts Klinikum Heidelberg, Germany , Hall 1. Wednesday 11 April, Afternoon Lunch and exhibition Hall 3. Lineage-specific associations of autotransporters in C. Offered paper - Comparative pan-genome analysis of Coxiella burnetii reveals limited evolution within genomic groups Claudia Hemsley University of Exeter, UK , Hall Offered paper - A microevolutionary approach using whole genome sequences to estimate the molecular clock in Campylobacter: Shaw Sheffield University, UK.

Offered paper Antimicrobial resistance - Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. Are we making an impact? CVN Business Hall 4. Microbial infection forum Offered papers will be presented in areas related to infections caused by prokaryote and eukaryote pathogens of human, veterinary or botanical significance including epidemiology, diagnosis, identification, typing, pathogenesis, treatment, antimicrobial agents and resistance, prevention, virulence factors, host responses and immunity, transmission, and models of infection at the cell, tissue or whole organism level.

Offered paper - Infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei induces cancer-like cellular and molecular changes in trigeminal Schwann cells Seyed Ali Delbaz Griffith University, Australia , Hall 5.

Offered paper - Lineage and strain specific differences in the in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity of bovine adapted Staphylococcus aureus Dagmara Niedziela Teagasc, Ireland and University College Dublin, Ireland , Hall 5.

Offered paper - Modelling the interactions of pathogenic and commensal strains of Mannheimia haemolytica with bovine airway epithelial cells Daniel Cozens University of Glasgow, UK , Hall 5. Offered paper - Real-time optical imaging of bacteria for point-of-care diagnosis of infection in the clinic Beth Mills University of Edinburgh, UK , Hall 5.

Offered paper - Investigating Campylobacter jejuni interactions with endoplasmic reticulum in intestinal epithelial cells resulting in induction of the unfolded protein response Abdi Elmi London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK , Hall 5. Offered paper - Metallophilic macrophage receptor blockade: Offered paper - Characterising emerging mutations in a stressed population of a biotechnologically-relevant E.

Flash poster presentation - Associative bacteria of Medicago lupulina L. Flash poster presentation - Novel mechanisms for overcoming phosphate limitation in rhizosphere-dwelling Flavobacteria spp.

Flash poster presentation - Incorporation of Vibrio vulnificus into phytoplankton-based marine aggregates for oyster uptake Cam Hubert University of Exeter, UK , Hall 11a. Flash poster presentation - Feature selection from microbial profiles via a genetic algorithm Nisha Puthiyedth University of Saskatchewan, Canada , Hall 11a. The transcription and translation landscapes during human cytomegalovirus infection Noam Stern-Ginossar Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel , Hall 1.

Thursday 12 April, Morning Registration open. The epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Italy: Sheppard Bath University, UK. Environmental and applied microbiology forum This forum focuses on any area in environmental, ecological, applied and industrial microbiology, including non-human host—microbe communities and interactions, marine and freshwater microbiology, soil and geomicrobiology, air-, cryo- and extremophile microbiology, climate change, biotechnology, bio-processing and bio-engineering, food microbiology, and other applied and industrial microbial processes, including microbe-mediated biodegradation and bioremediation.

Offered paper - Bioprospection of an oleaginous endophytic fungus, Phomopsis sp. Offered paper - Landfill sites: The experimental investigation of the relationship between bacterial adhesion upon a range of surfaces under different shear stresses within a microfluidic device.

Offered paper - Comparison of biofilm and bulk water bacterial community throughout the drinking water treatment process Cara Wray Newcastle University, UK , Hall 5. Engaging in science policy Scientists can play an important role informing policy-making, whether providing scientific evidence and solutions to policy-makers to help address grand challenges such as antimicrobial resistance or climate change, or informing science policy on research skills, funding, and infrastructure.

Refreshments and networking Hall 11b. Offered paper - Disentangling bacterial virulence mechanisms: Offered paper - Knowing the Enemy: How does Pseudomonas aeruginosa regulate carbon flux through its glyoxylate shunt?

Offered paper - Biocide exposure induces changes in susceptibility, pathogenicity, and biofilm formation in uropathogenic Escherichia coli Emma Henly Sheffield Hallam University, UK , Hall 1. Offered paper - Antibiotics Unearthed: Offered paper - How does paper beat rock in rock-paper-scissors? Quantifying interactions in a small, evolving microbial community Sara Mitri University of Lausanne, Switzerland , Hall 8a.

Clinical virology This workshop will involve a range of clinical virology cases or short papers which relate to studies relevant to clinical virology network. Utilisation of chimeric haemagglutinin bearing lentiviral pseudotypes to dissect head and stalk directed antibody responses George Carnell University of Kent, UK , Hall 4.

Production and application of reference materials in outbreak scenarios: Bacterial co-infections in patients with a range of viral respiratory tract infections — an under recognised clinical problem Temi Lampejo King's College Hospital, UK , Hall 4.

Offered paper - Merkel cell polyomavirus miRNA targeting of the host-cell immune response during virus replication results in the attenuation of neutrophil chemotaxis Pouria Akhbari University of Exeter, UK , Hall 11a.

Offered paper - Terminal depth single-molecule sequencing of capped transcripts reveals host-pathogen dynamics in human macrophages Sara Clohisey The Roslin Institute, UK , Hall 7. Offered paper - Elucidation of novel interactions between respiratory syncytial virus Rsv and human airway epithelium predictive of severe Rsv disease Dean Coey Queen's University Belfast, UK , Hall 7. Turkington University of Zurich, Switzerland , Hall 7. Offered paper - Absent to active: Offered paper - Characterising an unexpected role for the ubiquitin-like protein ISG Positive strand and double strand RNA viruses We invite abstracts on any aspect of the biology of positive strand and double strand RNA viruses.

Offered paper - Reverse genetic analysis of strain variation and virulence in deformed wing virus of honey bees Olesya Gusachenko University of St Andrews, UK , Hall 8b.

Offered paper - Handing out freebies: Retroviruses We invite abstracts on any aspect of retrovirus biology. Offered paper - Could HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitors be used for htlv-1 therapy?

Thursday 12 April, Afternoon Lunch and exhibition Hall 3. A zoonotic pathogen and biodefence: Host—pathogen interactions in the development of Lyme disease: Offered paper - Human-to-dog transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Offered paper - Dissemination of K. Offered paper - Antimicrobial resistance threats by Acinetobacter — emergency of an underestimated pathogen in veterinary medicine?

How do point of care and next generation sequencing fit into routine clinical diagnosis? Community interactions and the living host Session sponsored by eLIFE The living host provides complex ecological niches for thriving microbial communities.

Analysis of the role of Demodex mites and associated bacteria in inducing skin disease in humans Kevin Kavanagh Maynooth University, Ireland , Hall 5. Offered paper - Identifying the bacterial community and host response of a natural mixed infection using metatranscriptomics Sabine Tötemeyer University of Nottingham, UK , Hall 5.

Microbial physiology, metabolism and molecular biology forum This forum will consider offered papers on all aspects of microbial prokaryotic and eukaryotic metabolism and physiology, including fundamental research on the biochemistry and structure of cells, cell growth and division, cell architecture and differentiation, synthesis and transport of macromolecules, ions and small molecules and the cell cycle; but also on the role of physiology in microbial engineering, signalling and communication, sensing and cellular responses, the molecular mechanisms behind these phenomena and their potential applications.

Offered paper - Attractants and antagonists control the function of the dicarboxylic acid chemoreceptor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Miguel A. Offered paper - Campylobacter jejuni: Offered paper - Protein secretion and surface colonisation by Listeria monocytogenes: Involvement of the Sec pathway in bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.

Offered paper - Potential syntrophy alters the generation of E. Offered paper - How do myxobacteria kill their prey? Microbiomes of the blue planet: Offered paper - Human cytomegalovirus lncRNA2. Offered paper - Generation and lyophilisation of high titre Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus pseudotyped lentiviruses for use in antibody neutralisation assays Martin Mayora Neto University of Kent, UK , Hall 7.

Offered paper - Divergent host responses to hepatitis C virus infection in primates driven by differences in interferon lambda 4 activity Connor Bamford University of Glasgow, UK , Hall 8b. Offered paper - Characterisation of norovirus entry and antibody neutralisation using a novel pseudovirus-based entry assay Luke Meredith University of Cambridge, UK , Hall 8b.

Offered paper - Uncoating of non-enveloped RNA viruses: Genomics-based taxonomy of RNA viruses - will we still have Flaviviridae , Togaviridae , Reoviridae and Picornaviridae in 3 years' time? Offered paper - Structural-assisted design of mutant influenza virus libraries altered in HA gene to study sequence plasticity and antigenic escape in the highly-conserved influenza hemagglutinin stalk region Alfred Ho Imperial College London, UK , Hall 6.

Offered paper - Bacteriophages of the emerging phytopathogen, Dickeya solani: Offered paper - Pushing the limits of high throughput sequencing: Optimisation of a deep-sequencing protocol to identify immune escape variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus David King The Pirbright Institute, UK , Hall 6.

Offered paper - A systematic analysis of codon pair and dinucleotides biases in host genes and viral genomes Richard Orton University of Glasgow, UK , Hall 6. Passport to Prizes — prize draw Hall 3. Friday 13 April, Morning Registration open. Dissecting the human skin microbiome in health and disease — from strain-level composition to transcriptional and metabolic activities in the host environment Huying Li University of California, USA , Hall 5. Functional anatomy of the colonic bioreactor in health and disease Alexander Swidsinski Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany , Hall 5.

Offered paper - Host-niche specialisation in the gut: The magic of mushrooms in nature and industry Mushrooms are magical in a way no other microbe is — their amazing macro-structure means they are instantly visible and recognisable, often brightly coloured and decorating autumn forests. Potential and diversity of basidiomycete fungi for plant biomass conversion Ronald de Vries Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands , Hall 8a. Offered paper - Competitive networks: Ecology and conservation of grassland fungi: Eavesdropping on inter-kingdom chatter: Cool tools for microbial imaging Recent years have seen extraordinary advances in the technologies available to study microbial biology.

Genetics and genomics forum Offered papers on all aspects of the genes and genomes of microbes prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their mobile elements will be considered, including their sequencing, transcription, translation, regulation, chromosome dynamics, gene transfer, population genetics and evolution, taxonomy and systematics, comparative genomics, metagenomics, bioinformatics, and synthetic biology.

Offered paper - Large scale and significant expression from pseudogenes in Sodalis glossinidius — a facultative bacterial endosymbiont Ian Goodhead University of Salford, UK , Hall 9. Picornaviruses abrogate active cellular nucleocytoplasmic transport to achieve efficient viral translation and replication Ann Palmenberg University of Wisconsin—Madison, USA , Hall 1. Lunch, exhibition and poster presentations Hall 3.

Friday 13 April, Afternoon Community interactions and the living host Session sponsored by eLIFE The living host provides complex ecological niches for thriving microbial communities.

Offered paper - Comparative transcriptome analysis identified candidate genes involved in browning of fruit body in Lentinula edodes Seung il Yoo Theragenetex, Republic of Korea , Hall 8a.

Offered paper - Genomic analysis of bacteriophages against Pseudomonas tolaasii — potential biological control of a mushroom-pathogenic bacterium Jessica Bergman University of Cambridge, UK , Hall 8a. Offered paper - Diversity, community structure and enzyme activity of pioneer lignicolous fungi over a decay gradient in the canopy of European beech trees Anna Rawlings Swansea University, UK , Hall 8a.

Exhibition and refreshments Hall 8a. Evolutionary necessities for invading buildings, comparative and population genomic analyses in the dry rot fungus Inger Skrede University of Oslo, Norway , Hall 3. Offered paper - Pleuromutilin antibiotics: Offered paper - Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry: From microfluidic devices to native soil studies: Offered paper - Applying the Mesolens to microbiology: Coffee break Hall 3 Pre-Conference session: Registration open Registration open.

Pre-Conference networking workshop Hall 11a Pre-Conference networking workshop. Tuesday 10 April, Morning Registration open Registration open. Why new experimentally tractable organisms from key taxa will provide important insights into eukaryotic biology Inaki Ruiz-Trillo Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain , Hall 8a Emerging model systems. Investigating host—pathogen interactions in the innate immune system Robin May University of Birmingham, UK , Hall 11a Models for understanding host—pathogen interactions.

Expansion of the virus world in the era of metagenomics Eugene Koonin National Center for Biotechnology Information, USA , Hall 1 The global virome — the scope, causes and consequences of viral diversity. Offered paper - Cutibacterium acnes formerly Propionibacterium acnes is able to tailor its biofilm formation to environmental cues and increase biofilm formation in Staphylococcus species Helen Brown Cardiff University, UK , Hall 10 Breaking bad: Offered paper - Exploitation of random transposon mutagenesis to reveal conditionally essential genes important for antibiotic resistance Emily Goodall University of Birmingham, UK , Hall 5 Escherichia coli: Building an ex vivo model of chronic lung infection Freya Harrison University of Warwick, UK , Hall 11a Models for understanding host—pathogen interactions.

Offered paper - Identification of novel viruses in Scottish midges Sejal Modha University of Glasgow, UK , Hall 1 The global virome — the scope, causes and consequences of viral diversity. Exhibition and refreshments Hall 3 Escherichia coli: Exhibition and refreshments Hall 3 The global virome — the scope, causes and consequences of viral diversity.

Exhibition and refreshments Hall 3 Essential skills: Exhibition and refreshments Hall 3 Breaking bad: Exhibition and refreshments Hall 3 Emerging model systems.

Exhibition and refreshments Hall 3 Models for understanding host—pathogen interactions. Exhibition and refreshments Hall 3 Microbial diversity and interactions in the environment. Brain infection and activation of neuronal repair mechanisms by human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in Galleria mellonella Krishnendu Mukherjee University Giessen, Germany , Hall 11a Models for understanding host—pathogen interactions.

H7 reported by active surveillance through FoodNet did not change substantially, although it decreased in 2. During , a total of 3, cases of E. Healthy cattle, which harbor the organism as part of the bowel flora, are the main animal reservoir for E.

H7 and other Shiga-toxin producing E. The majority of reported outbreaks are caused by contaminated food or water. Reported cases of E. H7 infection have decreased since , following implementation of U. Department of Agriculture measures to reduce contamination of meat through improved processing.

Direct transmission from animals and their environments to humans in settings such as petting zoos and other animal exhibits remains a growing public health concern 3 ,4. During , a total of , cases of gonorrhea were reported 1. Gonorrhea rates were slightly lower than rates during In , for the first time, the reported gonorrhea rate among women Rates among non-Hispanic black women aged years 2, Decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolone antibiotics has also been reported from certain regions 2.

In , the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections continued to increase, particularly among men who have sex with men MSM. Fluoroquinolones are no longer advised for treatment of gonorrhea in Hawaii or California or for infections among MSM 3. The continued low number of invasive Hib infections among children from an estimated 20, cases annually in the prevaccine era is a result of the successful delivery of highly effective conjugate Hib vaccines to children, beginning at age 2 months 1 ,2.

Because discrepancies in serotyping results have occurred among laboratories, CDC requests that state health departments obtain and send all invasive H. Hemolytic uremic syndrome HUS is a syndrome defined by the triad of hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal insufficiency. The patients reported in national notifiable diseases surveillance include only those with antecedent diarrheal illness.

However, persons infected with E. H7 rarely progress to HUS 1, 2. Hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for persons at increased risk of hepatitis A e.

Since routine childhood vaccination was recommended in , the overall hepatitis A rate has declined steadily, and in , it was the lowest 2. The decline in rates has been greater among children and in states where routine childhood vaccination is recommended, suggesting an effect of childhood vaccination. The dramatic declines in disease rates in the age groups and areas in the United States that have historically accounted for the majority of reported cases have resulted in a shift in the epidemiology of this disease.

Hepatitis A rates, which historically were much higher in the western states, are now similar in all regions of the United States, and an increasing proportion of cases occur among adults, particularly those in populations at high risk e.

Despite declining overall rates, outbreaks continue to occur. In , several foodborne outbreaks were reported, including one in Pennsylvania that accounted for more than cases; the produce implicated in each outbreak was believed to have been contaminated during harvest 3.

The steady decline in hepatitis B rates coincides with the implementation of a national strategy to eliminate hepatitis B virus HBV 1. Among adults, a high proportion of cases occur among persons in identified high-risk populations i. Monitoring acute hepatitis C rates nationally has been challenging because 1 available serologic tests cannot distinguish acute infection from past or chronic infection, and 2 not all health departments have the resources to determine if a positive laboratory report for hepatitis C virus HCV infection represents acute infection.

Consequently, the most reliable estimates of acute hepatitis C incidence have historically come from sentinel surveillance. In recent years, analysis of data on acute, symptomatic hepatitis C collected through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System has yielded results similar to those from sentinel surveillance, indicating that the quality of national surveillance data for acute hepatitis C has improved.

Direct reporting of anti-HCV--positive test results by laboratories has increased the completeness of reporting of HCV-infected persons to health departments. The reporting of other available laboratory or clinical data would improve surveillance for hepatitis C by providing information to identify patients with acute disease. Improving the accuracy of hepatitis C surveillance data continues to be important because monitoring hepatitis C incidence trends provides information needed to evaluate the effectiveness of prevention efforts and identify additional opportunities for prevention.

By December , all 50 states and the District of Columbia had implemented HIV surveillance systems, including both name-based and nonname-based systems. Since , a total of 33 areas 32 states and the U. CDC will assess the implementation and effectiveness of prevention activities through multiple monitoring systems, including use of new performance indicators for state and local health departments and community-based organizations 1.

In the 33 areas 32 states and the U. Listeriosis is a severe but relatively uncommon infection caused by Listeria monocytogenes ; it was made a nationally notifiable disease in Listeriosis is primarily foodborne and occurs most frequently among persons who are older, pregnant, or immunocompromised.

Incidence was highest 1. Molecular subtyping of L. Recent outbreaks have been linked to ready-to-eat meat 1 and unpasteurized cheese 2. In , incidence of listeriosis as reported to FoodNet active surveillance was 0. Department of Agriculture USDA released a national Listeria Action Plan to help guide control efforts by industry, regulators, and public health officials 4. The number of Lyme disease cases reported for Pennsylvania in included 4, confirmed cases and 1, suspected cases. In contrast, the number of suspected Lyme disease cases reported annually for Pennsylvania during ranged from two to 11 cases.

The increase in the number of suspected cases is attributable to changes in reporting practices. Nevertheless, new prevention tools and techniques are becoming available. Recent studies indicate that peridomestic tick exposure can be reduced substantially through simple landscaping changes, and bait boxes that deliver rodent-targeted acaricide are now available through certain pest control operators.

Other products under development include devices for reducing ticks on deer and naturally occurring fungi that kill ticks on vegetation. A total of 56 confirmed measles cases, two of them fatal, were reported during by 15 states. Of the 56 cases, 24 were internationally imported, and 19 resulted from exposure to persons with imported infections. In two other cases, virologic evidence indicated an imported source.

The sources for the remaining 11 cases were classified as unknown because no link to importation was detected. Three outbreaks occurred in size range: The case outbreak was in Hawaii and included persons aged 3 months years; this outbreak began simultaneously with a measles outbreak in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, which resulted in cases and three deaths 3. During , a total of 11, cases of pertussis were reported incidence: This age group had the highest reported incidence Among the other pertussis cases, occurred among children aged months Pertussis continues to cause morbidity in the United States despite high coverage levels for childhood pertussis vaccine.

The incidence of reported pertussis has increased from 2. How much of this increase is caused by increased recognition and better reporting of cases is unclear 1 ,2.

Adolescents and adults can become susceptible to disease when vaccine-induced immunity wanes, approximately years after pertussis vaccination 2. The actual number of pertussis cases especially among adolescents and adults continues to be substantially underreported because the pertussis cough illness resembles other conditions, infected persons might not seek medical care, and availability of reliable diagnostic tests is limited.

Culture for Bordetella pertussis is highly specific but has low sensitivity. Polymerase chain reaction is not standardized, and its use has led to overdiagnosis of pertussis during certain outbreaks 4.

New strategies are needed to reduce the burden of pertussis disease in the United States; pertussis vaccines for adolescents and adults are under review by the Food and Drug Administration. Salmonella isolates are reported by serotype through the Public Health Laboratory Information System. A substantial proportion of S. During , the proportion of multiple drug-resistant strains of S.

On March 12, , the World Health Organization WHO issued a global alert for severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS , a potentially fatal new infectious disease that can spread rapidly from person to person and via international air travel. WHO and its partners, including CDC, initiated a rapid, intensive, and coordinated investigative and control effort that led within 2 weeks to the identification of the etiologic agent, SARS-associated coronavirus SARS-CoV , and to a series of effective containment efforts.

Of the total cases reported from the United States, were classified as suspected; 19 were classified as probable; and eight were laboratory confirmed 2. Prolonged, multistate outbreaks of S. A new serotype of Shigella boydii has been reported in the United States and Canada 4.

CDC estimates that approximately 11, cases of invasive GAS disease and 1, deaths occurred nationally during The incidence of invasive GAS infections in the United States has been relatively stable during the past 5 years range: For the third straight year, the proportion of pneumococcal isolates that were drug resistant declined.

Of the 3, S. Approximately one in eight In February , the Food and Drug Administration licensed a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for use in infants and young children.

Vaccine use has reduced rates of invasive pneumococcal disease markedly among children, the vaccine's target age group, and among unvaccinated older persons and has also reduced racial disparities in disease risk 4. During , a total of cases of congenital syphilis were reported As with primary and secondary syphilis, the rate of congenital syphilis has declined sharply in recent years, from a peak of The continuing decrease in the rate of congenital syphilis likely reflects the substantial reduction in the rate of primary and secondary syphilis among women.

Congenital syphilis persists in the United States because a substantial number of women do not receive syphilis serologic testing until late in their pregnancies or not at all. This lack of screening is often related to absent or late prenatal care 2. During , a total of 7, primary and secondary syphilis cases were reported, compared with 6, cases in The rate was the lowest since reporting began in The rate 2. This disparity between men and women, observed across all racial and ethnic populations, along with reported outbreaks of syphilis in large urban areas among men who have sex with men MSM , indicates that increases in syphilis are continuing to occur among MSM.

Rates remain disproportionately high in the South and among non-Hispanic blacks, but these rates are continuing to decline 1, 2. In , a total of 20 cases of tetanus were reported from 13 states and the District of Columbia. During , a total of 14, tuberculosis TB cases rate: This decline is the smallest since , when TB incidence peaked after a 7-year resurgence 1.

In addition, the rate remains higher than the national interim objective of 3. In descending order, the highest rates per , population were reported among Asians The TB rate among foreign-born persons has declined since from In , the case rate was 8.

CDC is collaborating with public health partners to implement TB control initiatives for recent international arrivals and residents along the border between the United States and Mexico and to strengthen TB programs in countries with a high incidence of TB disease 2.

CDC has recently updated its comprehensive national action plan to reflect the realignment of its priorities with the Institute of Medicine report 3 and to ensure that priority prevention activities are undertaken with optimal collaboration and coordination among national and international public health partners 4.

A total of cases of tularemia were reported in , compared with an annual average of cases for the preceding 3 years. Noteworthy were cases involving a child who apparently acquired tularemia from exposure to pet hamsters, an outbreak among commercially distributed prairie dogs, an unusual case of intra-abdominal tularemia in a patient with stomach cancer 1 , and a cluster of pneumonic tularemia cases among lawn-care workers who mowed over a dead rabbit. In , a total of cases of typhoid fever were reported in the United States.

Persons visiting friends and relatives in south Asia appear to be at particular risk, even during short visits 1. Salmonella Typhi strains with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin are increasingly common in that region and should be treated with alternative antimicrobial agents 2. Typhi outbreaks in the United States are generally limited in size but can cause substantial morbidity; they are most often foodborne and warrant thorough investigation 3.

A sexually transmitted outbreak of typhoid fever has been recognized and reported 4. Compared with , cases declined The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists CSTE recommends that all states establish statewide individual varicella case reporting by 1. The objectives of varicella surveillance at state and national levels are to 1 monitor the epidemiology of varicella by age and place and over time, 2 monitor the impact of widespread and increasing immunization on the epidemiology of varicella, and 3 allow prompt implementation of disease control measures.

In , CSTE recommended that states report varicella deaths to CDC to monitor the impact of routine varicella vaccination on varicella-related mortality 2.

In , two states Arkansas and Maryland each reported one varicella death; ages of persons at time of death were 12 and 18 years.

Reporting of varicella deaths is incomplete, which limits the usefulness of mortality data in assessing the impact of the varicella vaccination program. CDC encourages states to report varicella deaths, so the risk factors for varicella-related mortality can be identified, and the percentage of deaths that would have been directly preventable by following current recommendations for vaccination can be determined. During , for the fifth consecutive year, epidemic and epizootic West Nile virus WNV activity occurred in the United States, including a substantial epidemic of neuroinvasive WNV disease in the Great Plains states, widespread perennial reemergence in areas of previous activity, and continued geographic expansion into western states.

The WNV epidemic in the United States was comparable in size to, but focused further west than, the epidemic, which was centered in states along the Mississippi River Valley 1. Illness onset dates were April December 5; the epidemic peak occurred during the week ending August In , a total of presumptively WNV-viremic blood donors were identified through nationwide blood screening, and investigations were initiated to track birth outcomes among approximately 70 women with WNV illness acquired during pregnancy 2 , 3.

Increased surveillance for human WNV illness cases might have resulted in improved surveillance for other domestic arboviruses of public health importance. In , WNV activity was reported from 2, counties in 46 states and D.

In addition, 12, WNV-infected dead birds were reported from 43 states and D. In , a total of 14 cases of neuroinvasive illness caused by eastern equine encephalitis virus were reported from eight states Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia , equaling the maximum number reported to CDC in any year during In addition, a large eastern equine encephalitis epizootic among equines cases and including dogs two cases and other veterinary species 18 cases was reported in 19 states.

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