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No dissent, disagreement, or conflicting interests occur, just total lockstep. Stanhope JM et al. Ecosystems are controlled both by external and internal factors. Examples of Nutraceuticals are natural foods , including antioxidants, dietary supplements , fortified dairy products, and citrus fruits, and vitamins, minerals, herbals, milk, and cereals. Sports Nutrition and Fitness. To enhance the efficacy of Nutraceuticals, delivery systems are greatly needed to protect Nutraceuticals from the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal GI tract. Nature often uses the same solution to a given problem encountered by many independently evolved species.
A revised BioCode that, instead of replacing the existing codes, would provide a unified context for them, was proposed in Animalia — Bos primigenius taurus. Fungi — Morchella esculenta. Virus — Gamma phage. Ecology is the study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms , the interaction between them and their environment. A microscopic bacterium responding to a local sugar gradient is responding to its environment as much as a lion searching for food in the African savanna.
For any species, behaviors can be co-operative , competitive , parasitic , or symbiotic. Matters become more complex when two or more species interact in an ecosystem. Ecological systems are studied at several different levels, from the scale of the ecology of individual organisms, to those of populations , to the ecosystems and finally the biosphere. The term population biology is often used interchangeably with population ecology , although population biology is more frequently used in the case of diseases , viruses , and microbes , while the term population ecology is more commonly applied to the study of plants and animals.
Ecology draws on many subdisciplines. Ethology is the study of animal behavior particularly that of social animals such as primates and canids , and is sometimes considered a branch of zoology. Ethologists have been particularly concerned with the evolution of behavior and the understanding of behavior in terms of the theory of natural selection.
In one sense, the first modern ethologist was Charles Darwin , whose book, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals , influenced many ethologists to come. Biogeography studies the spatial distribution of organisms on the Earth , focusing on such topics as plate tectonics , climate change , dispersal and migration , and cladistics. Despite the profound advances made over recent decades in our understanding of life's fundamental processes, some basic problems have remained unresolved.
One of the major unresolved problems in biology is the primary adaptive function of sex, and particularly its key processes in eukaryotes of meiosis and homologous recombination. One view is that sex evolved primarily as an adaptation that promoted increased genetic diversity see references e. An alternative view is that sex is an adaptation for promoting accurate DNA repair in germ-line DNA, and that increased genetic diversity is primarily a byproduct that may be useful in the long run.
Another basic unresolved problem in biology is the biologic basis of aging. At present, there is no consensus view on the underlying cause of aging. Various competing theories are outlined in Ageing Theories. These are the main branches of biology: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Biology disambiguation. Biology deals with the study of life and organisms. Goliath beetle and tree fern. Molecular biology , Cell biology , Genetics , and Developmental biology.
Ecology , Ethology , Behavior , and Biogeography. List of unsolved problems in biology. Biology in fiction Glossary of biology List of biological websites List of biologists List of biology journals List of biology topics List of omics topics in biology National Association of Biology Teachers Outline of biology Periodic table of life sciences in Tinbergen's four questions Reproduction Terminology of biology.
Texas State University at San Marcos. Archived from the original on Advances in Physiology Education. Molecular Biology, Principles of Genome Function. Retrieved 14 February The Romantic Conception of Life: Science and Philosophy in the Age of Goethe.
University of Chicago Press. The Epic History of Biology. Retrieved 14 July In Morelon, Régis; Rashed, Roshdi. Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. The Evolution of Biology. Biology in the Nineteenth Century: Problems of Form, Function, and Transformation. The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. The Growth of Biological Thought , chapter The Remarkable History of a Scientific Theory. Random House Publishing Group. Molecules, Mind, and Meaning.
Lamarck, the founder of Evolution: The American Biology Teacher. On the origin of species by means of natural selection. Louis puts it in his introduction to a modern reprint of Darwin's work: It is one of the two or three most significant works of all time—one of those works that fundamentally and permanently alter our vision of the world It is argued with a singularly rigorous consistency but it is also eloquent, imaginatively evocative, and rhetorically compelling.
On the Origin of Species , John Murray. The Meaning of Evolution Second ed. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. From the Century of the Genome to the Century of the Organism: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Oxford dictionary of biochemistry and molecular biology. Photosynthesis — the synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, esp.
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Anatomy of the Human Body 20th ed. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis 7th ed. Analysis of Genes and Genomes 6th ed. In Reeve, Eric C. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, I. The International Journal of Developmental Biology. Applying knowledge from a weed to enhance our understanding of a crop species".
Whither model organism research? Evolutionary Biology; Third edition. S Aft J Sci. Writing for Science and Engineering: United States National Institutes of Health. A standard is different from a performance indicator. A standard represents a goal and belongs in Stage 1. A performance indicator, such as those found often in bulleted lists under state content standards, represents possible assessment evidence. Making matters more confusing, sometimes the standards also refer to learning activities like those we would put in Stage 3.
See standard in the Glossary. Why might we be unsure about what constitutes good evidence of understanding? Because the evidence we tend to focus on or that stands out more readily can easily mislead us if we are not careful.
When students provide the answer we seek, it is easy to conflate such recall with understanding. Bloom and his colleagues remind us of the distinction when they recount a famous story about John Dewey: Almost everyone has had the experience of being unable to answer a question involving recall when the question is stated in one form, and then having little difficulty.
The teacher chided Dr. The story beautifully illustrates the need to distinguish the content goal from the evidence, as well as the need to stress transferability in the requirements for evidence. Children cannot be said to understand their own answer, even though it is correct, if they can only answer a question phrased just so.
Getting evidence of understanding means crafting assessments to evoke transferability: A person who has understanding can cope far better than others with ambiguous—that is, real-world—challenges in which what is required does not come packaged as a straightforward cue to stimulate a single response. Recall the vignette in the Introduction about the class valedictorian who admitted a lack of understanding despite high marks on tests of recall.
Evidence of understanding that is transferable involves assessing for students' capacity to use their knowledge thoughtfully and to apply it effectively in diverse settings—that is, to do the subject. Many approaches to instruction look equivalent when the only measure of learning is memory. Instructional differences become more apparent when evaluated from the perspective of how well the learning transfers to new problems and settings. The point is nothing new. An assessment of application had to involve a novel task, requiring transfer; and it ideally involved contextualized and practical use of ideas: Ideally we are seeking a problem which will test the extent to which an individual has learned to apply the abstraction in a practical way.
Evidence of understanding requires that we test quite differently, then. This requires us to anchor our assessments in prototypical performances in each area, success at which indicates understanding; for example, the ability to design a science experiment, debug it, and revise it in order to determine the chemical content of a substance; the ability to use the facts and skills learned in history to write a credible narrative about a period in local history.
For a more detailed discussion of core tasks, see Chapters 7 and We need to see if students with understandably limited ability can nonetheless transfer—that is, recognize what in their repertoire might be useful here , in this novel situation, and use it effectively.
We are often too ready to attribute understanding when we see correct and intelligent-sounding answers on our own tests.
What may trip us up more than we realize is apparent understanding, in other words. And that difficulty is likely exacerbated in a world of high-stakes testing and grading. For as long as education promotes a cat-and-mouse game whereby students have incentive to both please us and appear to understand what they are supposed to learn irrespective of whether they do or not , the challenge of assessing for real understanding becomes greater.
In short, we must be careful: It doesn't matter how we term the difference between knowing and understanding as long as we safeguard the real difference. What we call understanding is not a matter of mere semantics.
It is a matter of conceptual clarity whereby we distinguish between a borrowed expert opinion and an internalized flexible idea. If our assessments are too superficial and fact-centered, we may miss the distinction in the evidence we collect. We have to be sharper at specifying what kinds of student work and assessment evidence are required if we are to judge a student as really understanding.
Although we concede that there is no unique or inherently perfect assessment task for an understanding target, certain kinds of challenges are more appropriate than others. Knowing what kinds of assessments embody the standards is precisely what many teachers need. Recall that this is why Bloom's Taxonomy was written in the first place. Without specificity concerning what counts as appropriate evidence for meeting the standards, a teacher might well be satisfied by a factual test of knowledge, whereas only a complex piece of inquiry and defense of methods and result will truly do justice to the standard.
Before we answer that question, we must deal with another problem first: Sometimes a correct answer hides misunderstanding. How is that possible? And what are the implications for assessment of understanding? The irony is that we can gain significant insight into designing, assessing, and teaching for understanding by considering the phenomenon of misunderstanding. Somehow, well-intentioned, able, and attentive students can take away lessons that we never intended. Somehow, the fact that Holden is in great emotional pain—and tells the story from his psychiatric hospital bed—is unseen by many students.
Similarly, in mathematics, many elementary students struggle mightily with the multiplication of fractions, given the oddity of the answers being smaller than the numbers they started with. Or consider the great challenge of reading: Simple decoding is not so simple. But we thought we understood the rule! Misunderstanding is not ignorance, therefore. It is the mapping of a working idea in a plausible but incorrect way in a new situation. Here are some examples: One of our children asked: Seven isn't a decimal!
Paradoxically, you have to have knowledge and the ability to transfer in order to misunderstand things. Thus evidence of misunderstanding is incredibly valuable to teachers, not a mere mistake to be corrected. It signifies an attempted and plausible but unsuccessful transfer. The challenge is to reward the try without reinforcing the mistake or dampening future transfer attempts.
In fact, many teachers not only fail to see the value in the feedback of student misunderstanding, they are somewhat threatened or irritated by it. For some teachers, perpetual student misunderstanding is therefore threatening, understandably, because it seems to call into question our methods and implied goals. What the naïve teacher may be overlooking, of course, is that the big ideas are rarely obvious.
Indeed, they are often counterintuitive, as we noted in Chapter 1. A word to the wise, then: Take time to ponder: Hmmm, what is not obvious to the novices here? What am I taking for granted that is easily misunderstood? Why did they draw the conclusion they did? Making the matter of greater urgency is the fact that research over the past 20 years confirms the surprising depth and breadth of the phenomenon.
Indeed, it is not only our view but also the view of leading cognitive researchers that ferreting out student conceptions and misconceptions and being mindful of them when designing learning is key to better results.
A summary of the research on learning and teaching for understanding is presented in Chapter Howard Gardner, David Perkins, and their Harvard colleagues at Project Zero have summarized these findings eloquently and thoroughly in the past decade, though the misconception research goes back to work done in science education in the s.
As Gardner explains in summing up the research, [What] an extensive research literature now documents is that an ordinary degree of understanding is routinely missing in many, perhaps most students. It is reasonable to expect a college student to be able to apply in new context a law of physics, or a proof in geometry, or the concept in history of which she has just demonstrated acceptable mastery in her class.
If, when the circumstances of testing are slightly altered, the sought-after competence can no longer be documented, then understanding—in any reasonable sense of the term—has simply not been achieved.
Testing of even a conventional kind can provide evidence of such failures to understand if the tests are designed with misunderstanding in mind. Consider this result more generally.
The test was a mixture of multiple-choice, constructed response, and performance-task questions. For more than a decade in physics, specific tests have been developed and used as assessments targeting key misconceptions. The most widely used test, the Force Concept Inventory, provides a pre- and post-test instrument for measuring progress in overcoming the most common and surprisingly persistent misconceptions.
AAAS, in its Benchmarks and Atlas of Science Literacy , has provided a rich account of desired understandings in the sciences, coupled with key misunderstandings connected with them: When a relationship is represented in symbols, numbers can be substituted for all but one of the symbols, and the possible value of the remaining symbol computed. Sometimes the relationship may be satisfied by one value, sometimes more than one, and sometimes not at all.
Students have difficulty understanding how symbols are used in algebra. They are often unaware of the arbitrariness of the letters chosen. These difficulties persist even after instruction in algebra and into college. The middle of a data distribution may be misleading—when the data are not distributed symmetrically, or when there are extreme high or low values, or when the distribution is not reasonably smooth. The concept of the mean is quite difficult for students of all ages to understand even after years of formal instruction.
Premature introduction of the algorithm for computing the mean divorced from a meaningful context may block students from understanding what averages are. To see how easy it is to misunderstand things we think we all know, consider this more basic science question: Why is it colder in winter and warmer in summer?
Just about every student in the United States has been taught basic astronomy. But when graduating Harvard seniors were asked the question as documented in a video on the misunderstanding phenomenon produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics , few could correctly explain why Schneps, Similar findings occur when we ask adults to explain the phases of the moon: Many well-educated people describe the phases as lunar eclipses.
In a follow-up video series on misconceptions in science entitled Minds of Their Own , the Harvard astrophysics group documented how a physics student who can do the same electric circuit problems we give to 4th graders, and describe what is occurring, has a flawed understanding when the question is cast in a novel way can you light the bulb with only batteries and wires?
The recognition of inevitable learner misunderstanding in even the best minds, in disciplines as seemingly straightforward and logical as science and mathematics, is actually quite old.
Plato's dialogues vividly portray the interplay between the quest for understanding and the habits of mind and misconceptions that may be subconsciously shaping or inhibiting our thinking. Philosophers and psychologists from Kant and Wittgenstein to Piaget and other modern cognitive researchers have attempted to figure out the puzzle of persistent misunderstanding and the naïve conviction that typically accompanies it—and the selfassessment and self-discipline needed to move beyond both.
Practically speaking, we must begin to design assessments in recognition of the need for conceptual benchmarks, not just performance abilities. We need to design assessments mindful of not only the big ideas but also the likelihood that those ideas will be misconceived—and will resist being overcome, as in this biology example cited by Shulman Biology teachers must wrestle with the durability of student misconceptions of evolution and natural selection.
Most students in courses that emphasize evolution and natural selection enter these courses as intuitive Lamarckians. They are convinced that any characteristics acquired by one generation are then transmitted to the next generation.
The formal instruction emphasizes the Darwinian refutation of that position. These students may earn A's and B's in the course, demonstrating that they now understand the Darwinian perspective, but quiz them three months later and they're once again dedicated intuitive Lamarckians—as indeed are many of the rest of us.
I suspect that forms of fantasia are endemic among students and graduates of higher education, many lying in wait for years before manifesting themselves at critical moments. Here are some examples of common misunderstandings for some important ideas, and understandings that reflect the overcoming of them: Impressionism is art in which the painter offers a subjective impression or feeling evoked by the scene.
The opposite is the case: Impressionism was an attempt to paint scenes realistically, not abstractly or by feeling. Impressionism refers to a technical term in philosophy whereby direct sensory impressions are distinguished from the mind's placing of those impressions into ideas. Each month there is a lunar eclipse when the moon is not visible. The phases of the moon depend on the relative position of the earth, the sun, and the moon, so that we see the part of the moon that is lit by the sun.
Ongoing lunar eclipses are not the cause of the phases. Science is about finding causes. Modern science, economics, and medicine search for statistical patterns.
When you multiply two numbers, the answer is bigger. Multiplication is not repeated addition. Fractions when multiplied yield a smaller answer, and when divided, a larger answer.
How can that be? History is about the facts, what happened. A historian is a storyteller, not a mere gatherer and purveyor of facts. Why, then, do so few students realize that there can be and are very different stories of the same important history?
The greater the surface area, the greater the force. Thus, you should swim with a flat palm to maximize the amount of water being pulled and pushed. Light is light and dark is dark. Two light beams intersecting at crest and trough can cancel each other out and cause darkness! Noise-canceling headphones use sound to produce silence. The Lancet Mar 6;1 The Oslo diet-heart study: Circulation 42 —, http: The effect of plasma cholesterol lowering diet in male survivors of myocardial infarction: Acta Medica Scandinavica, Supplementum ; The Lancet Sep 28;2 Turpeinen O et al.
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Single-centre double-blind randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry Feb; Omega-3 fatty acids improve the diagnosis-related clinical outcome. Critical Care Medicine Apr;34 4: Experimental Medicine and Biology Maywood Jun; 6: Improved outcome after peripheral nerve injury in mice with increased levels of endogenous? The Journal of Neuroscience Jan 11;32 2: Fat—1 transgenic mice with elevated omega-3 fatty acids are protected from allergic airway responses.
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Growth hormone effect on the role of fat in nitrogen metabolism. American Journal of Physiology Nov; 5: Growth hormone and protein metabolism. Clinical Nutrition Dec;28 6: From GH to Billy Ghrelin. Cell Metabolism Aug;10 2: Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease.
Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japanese: Inverse association of dietary fat with development of ischemic stroke in men.
Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Hat tip to Richard D Feinman: What if saturated fat is not the problem? Ketogenicity of soybean oil, coconut oil and their respective fatty acids for the chick. Journal of Nutrition Dec; Medium-chain triglyceride MCT ketogenic therapy. Epilepsia Nov;49 suppl 8: In vitro killing of Candida albicans by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Nov;45 Liu S et al.
Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi by fatty acids. Mycopathologia Aug; 2: The effects of saturated fatty acids on Giardia duodenalis trophozoites in vitro. Parasitology Research Oct;97 3: Medium-chain fatty acids decrease colonization and invasion through hilA suppression shortly after infection of chickens with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Jun;70 6: Gantois I et al. Butyrate specifically down-regulates salmonella pathogenicity island 1 gene expression.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Jan;72 1: Antimicrobial property of lauric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: Journal of Investigative Dermatology Oct; Antibacterial interactions of monolaurin with commonly used antimicrobials and food components. Journal of Food Science Sep;74 7: In vitro inactivation of Chlamydia trachomatis by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Sep;42 9: Antibacterial actions of fatty acids and monoglycerides against Helicobacter pylori.
Inactivation of enveloped viruses and killing of cells by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Jan;31 1: The antimicrobial function of milk lipids.
Advances in Nutritional Research ; Studies on fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and blood lipids of Polynesians. I have heard that coconut is bad for the heart and that it is good for the heart. Harvard Heart Letter Sep;17 1: Low-density lipoprotein subclass patterns and risk of myocardial infarction. Value of low-density lipoprotein particle number and size as predictors of coronary artery disease in apparently healthy men and women: Journal of the American College of Cardiology Feb 6;49 5: Diabetes Care Nov;23 Consumption of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols decreases body fat and blood triglyceride in Chinese hypertriglyceridemic subjects.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Jul;63 7: The therapeutic implications of ketone bodies: Medium chain triglycerides MCT in aging and arteriosclerosis. The Tokelau Island migrant study. International Journal of Epidemiology Sep;3 3: Stanhope JM et al. The Tokelau Island Migrant Study: Journal of Chronic Diseases ;34 2—3: Niacin stimulates adiponectin secretion through the GPRA receptor. Ahmed K et al. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences Nov;30 Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity.
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Pediatric Neurology Aug;41 2: Application of a ketogenic diet in children with autistic behavior: Journal of Child Neurology Feb;18 2: The antidepressant properties of the ketogenic diet.
Biological Psychiatry Dec 15;56 The ketogenic diet may have mood-stabilizing properties. Medical Hypotheses Dec;57 6: Schizophrenia, gluten, and low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets: Cancer as a metabolic disease. Implementing a ketogenic diet based on medium-chain triglyceride oil in pediatric patients with cancer. Journal of the American Dietetic Association Jun;95 6: Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer through calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet.
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Fasting and differential chemotherapy protection in patients. Cell Cycle Nov 15;9 Johnson JB et al. Pretreatment with alternate day modified fast will permit higher dose and frequency of cancer chemotherapy and better cure rates. Medical Hypotheses Apr;72 4: Hat tip to Mario Renato Iwakura. Long-term use of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of epilepsy. Hat tip Evelyn Kocur aka CarbSane.
A blinded, crossover study of the efficacy of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia Feb;50 2: Branched chain amino acids as adjunctive therapy to ketogenic diet in epilepsy: Journal of Child Neurology Oct;24 A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing.
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Gastroenterology Jul; 1: Physiological concentrations of short-chain fatty acids immediately suppress colonic epithelial permeability. British Journal of Nutrition Aug; 2: Constipation is relieved more by rye bread than wheat bread or laxatives without increased adverse gastrointestinal effects. Effects of short chain fatty acids on a new human colon carcinoma cell line LIM Gut Dec;27 Mechanisms of primary cancer prevention by butyrate and other products formed during gut flora—mediated fermentation of dietary fibre.
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The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry Sep;13 9: Anti-inflammatory effects of sodium butyrate on human monocytes: Hyaluronan mixed esters of butyric and retinoic acid affording myocardial survival and repair without stem cell transplantation. The Journal of Biological Chemistry Mar 26; Butyric acid from the diet: Rarity of colon cancer in Africans is associated with low animal product consumption, not fiber.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology May;94 5: Dietary fiber and progression of atherosclerosis: Blueberry husks, rye bran and multi-strain probiotics affect the severity of colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology ;44 Vancomycin-resistant enterococci exploit antibiotic-induced innate immune deficits.
Nature Oct 9; Fats and absorbing endotoxin, February 23, , http: Potential prebiotic properties of almond Amygdalus communis L. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Jul;74 Mucin degradation by Bifidobacterium strains isolated from the human intestinal microbiota. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Mar;74 6: Colonization of mucin by human intestinal bacteria and establishment of biofilm communities in a two-stage continuous culture system.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Nov;71 Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of colorectal cancer: Hat tip Melissa McEwen, The human colon in evolution: Archives of Internal Medicine Jun 27; Late-life alcohol consumption and year mortality.
Clinical and Experimental Research Nov;34 Hat tip to Robin Hanson: Alcohol is healthy, September 2, , www. Alcohol dosing and total mortality in men and women: Archives of Internal Medicine Dec 11—25; Camargo CA et al.
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Diabetes Jun;57 6: Effect of methionine on the fatty acid composition of cellular membranes in rats with chronic ethanol consumption and jejunoileal bypass. Alcohol and Alcoholism Sep;31 5: Relationships between nutrition, alcohol use, and liver disease. Sprince H et al. Protective action of ascorbic acid and sulfur compounds against acetaldehyde toxicity: Watanabe A et al. Lowering of blood acetaldehyde but not ethanol concentrations by pantethine following alcohol ingestion: Clinical and Experimental Research May—Jun;9 3: Hat tip to Wyatt: Hippocrates on diet and hygiene.
The diet trap revisited: Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss. Pathways from weight fluctuations to metabolic diseases: Naturalistic weight-reduction efforts prospectively predict growth in relative weight and onset of obesity among female adolescents.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Dec;67 6: High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and its association with obesity and metabolic syndrome among Malay adults in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Diabetes Feb;57 2: Intracellular magnesium of obese and type 2 diabetes mellitus children. Diabetes Therapy Aug;1 1: Association of total body and visceral fat mass with iron deficiency in preadolescents: British Journal of Nutrition Aug; 4: Zinc and copper serum levels of morbidly obese patients before and after biliopancreatic diversion: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery Dec;15 Selenium is significantly depleted among morbidly obese female patients seeking bariatric surgery.
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