Amphibians & Reptiles


Dog's Digestive System
A similar substance is produced by flamingos and male Emperor Penguins. While they may not be completely parasite- or infection-free, a healthy animal's immune system functions strongly and easily keeps the colonies of parasites, bacteria, or fungi under control so that they do not reproduce to such an extent as to interfere with the normal functioning of the body. They leave the waters only during the breeding season for laying eggs. Alethinophidia Nopcsa, Scolecophidia Cope, January 5, at 8: Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo Phalacrocoracidae, Aves.

What Is a Reptile?

Bearded Dragon Food

Animals like the Saltwater Crocodile and Marine Iguana inhabit seaside, travelling in and out of ocean as necessary. Some species, such as the Sea Snakes and Sea Turtles, live in the ocean.

They leave the waters only during the breeding season for laying eggs. These animals typically practice sexual reproduction with some specific species using asexual reproduction. Majority of these animals are amniotes, laying eggs covered with calcareous or leathery shells.

The eggs are generally laid in underground burrows dug by the females. The viviparity and ovoviviparity modes of reproduction are used by many species such as all boas and many vipers. However, the level of viviparity may vary with some species retaining their eggs until shortly before hatching while others nourish the eggs for supplementing the yolks.

In some Reptile species, the eggs do not have any yolk with the adults providing all the necessary nourishment through a structure resembling the mammalian placenta. Six lizard families and one snake family from the Squamata sub-group are known to be capable of agamogenesis or asexual reproduction.

In some squamate species, the females are capable of giving birth to unisexual diploid clones of themselves. This type of asexual reproduction is known as parthenogenesis, occurring in various teiid lizards, geckos and lacertid lizards. Komodo dragons have reproduced through parthenogeny in captivitiy. Like many mammals, birds and Amphibians, their embryonic life consists of an amnion, chorion, as well as an allantois.

The incubation period may vary depending on the species and other factors like the temperature of the surroundings. Usually, hatchlings are able to take care of themselves almost immediately after coming out of the eggs. But, the females of some species are known to protect their eggs and hatchlings. For example, female Pythons coil themselves around the eggs in order to protect them and regulate their temperature.

Similarly, crocodiles are known to guard their young after the eggs hatch. TDSD or temperature-dependent sex determination can be observed in many Reptiles. In TDSD, the incubation temperature determines the sex of the offspring. This characteristic is most commonly seen in crocodiles and turtles, but can also occur in tuataras and lizards.

Different food habits can be observed between the four sub-groups. Animals belonging to the Crocodilia, Squamata and Sphenodontia sub-groups are carnivores, feeding on a wide range of prey from vertebrates to fish and insects.

The Testudines are herbivorous in nature with their diet comprising of fruits, shrubs, leaves, grass and marine plant materials like kelp and algae. The populations of many Reptilian species are facing rapid decline due to various factors like deforestation, loss of habitat, hunting for hide and to use them for edible purposes.

Various Reptile populations have faced extinction in some specific locations. Due to these reasons, many species are protected by law in most of the countries where they are found. Many Reptile species, including various lizards and turtles, are very popular all over the world as exotic pets. There is a widespread popularity even for the venomous snakes, especially among keen animal lovers. However, there is a common misconception that these animals do not need as much care as required by mammal pets.

The truth is that, Reptiles need to be taken care of properly; otherwise, they cannot survive in captivity. They should be kept in large tanks or cages where they can move freely. It is not advisable to keep more than one to two animals in a single enclosure. Their tanks should have suitable substrate and the animals should be provided with special heating lamps to allow them to bask and maintain their body temperature.

The temperature of the tanks needs to be monitored with the help of thermostats. Heating pads can also be used for this purpose. Custom made cages can also be used for this purpose as these mimic the natural habitat of a specific species in the best manner possible.

It is advisable to place stones, pieces of wood and small plants in their tanks to provide them with basking spots. Using a fogger to mist the enclosure may be advisable for certain species. When keeping snakes or poisonous lizards as pets, one should keep in mind not to handle them with bare hands.

One should do extensive research and read appropriate books regarding how to best take care of them before petting any Reptilian animal. These pets can survive as much as mammalian pets of similar size when properly taken care of.

The Ringneck Snake is a species of small North American snakes that belong to the harmless colubrid family. The Banded Water Snake also called the southern water snake is a species of aquatic snake widely distributed in parts of the United States.

The Water Monitor is a species of giant monitor lizard found in parts of South and Southeast Asian countries. These semi-aquatic reptiles are common t. The African Fat-tailed Gecko is a species of lizard abundantly spread throughout the western regions of the continent of Africa. Often confused with i. Black caimans found in South America are the fourth largest extant member of the crocodile family.

These robust reptiles were almost hunted to extinct. Dwarf caimans found in South America are the smallest crocodilian belonging to the alligator family. It is one of the two members in its genus, the ot. The Emerald Tree Boa is a non-venomous boa species that is considered to be one of the most beautiful snakes in the world. They are known for their cr.

Common leopard geckos, also known as the spotted fat-tailed gecko, are terrestrial lizards found in Asia. Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is prohibited. Reptile Classification According to the taxonomy, they belong to the kingdom Animalia, phylum Chordata and the clade Amniota. The Reptilia class is further divided into several extant sub-groups: There are around species in this sub-group, including turtles, tortoises and terrapins.

This subgroup includes the two living tuatara species from New Zealand. This is the biggest sub-group of the Reptilia class, having over 9, species including lizards, worm lizards and snakes.

This subgroup consists of 25 different species including crocodiles, alligators, caimans and gavials. Reptile Defense Mechanism The useful defenses of these animals help them to survive in their wild habitat.

Camouflage Birds and larger Reptiles are among the main predators of many smaller lizards and snakes. Tail Shedding and Regenerating Various lizards like skinks and geckos can shed their tail when captured by it.

Defense in Snakes The principal defense mechanism in various snake species is their ability to deliver poison through their fangs. Evolution of Reptiles These animals originated around million to million years ago with the first reptiles evolving from the advanced reptiliomorph labyrinthodonts. Reptile Anatomy Eyes Most Reptiles are unable to see properly during nighttime as their vision is mainly adapted to the daylight conditions.

Skin The horny epidermis layer makes their skin watertight, allowing these animals to inhabit dry land. Respiratory System Reptiles use their lungs for breathing. Digestive System Majority of these animals have short digestive tracts because their diet mainly consists of meat, which is very simple to digest.

Nervous System The basic nervous system in the Reptiles is similar to that in the Amphibians. Skeletal System Most of these animals are tetrapods, meaning they have four legs. Excretory System Their excretory system consists of two small kidneys. Characteristics of Reptiles Reptiles have certain characteristic features that help in distinguishing them from Amphibians, Mammals and Aves: Unlike Amphibians who have gills during their juvenile stage, Reptiles breathe through lungs at all stages of their lives.

Apart from crocodiles, all Reptiles have three-chambered hearts. Unlike Birds and Mammals, their kidneys cannot produce liquid urine with higher concentration than the body fluids. This happens because these animals lack the special structure known as Henle's loop, which is located within the nephrons of Mammals and Birds. Reptiles are cold blooded animals, meaning their body temperature is controlled by their surroundings. Due to this reason, they need to bask in the sun regularly for keeping themselves warm.

Their characteristic tough and scaly skin preserves the body heat while also preventing loss of moisture. Many reptiles are blind or have primitive eyes. Some snake species are blind and use their tongues to understand their surroundings and to recognize the scent of potential prey. Certain Reptilian species have eardrums located close to their eyes to help them sense their prey. Unlike Amphibians, Reptiles do not go through metamorphosis in order to develop into adults.

The juveniles are born as miniature versions of adults with the same physical characteristics. Reptile Habitat They are capable of adapting to almost all kinds of habitats and environmental conditions, except for extremely cold regions.

Desert Habitat Reptiles are capable of adapting to extremely high temperatures because they are cold blooded. Grassland Habitat Grassland is another common type of habitat for various snakes and lizards e. Wetland Habitat Swamps and large water bodies are inhabited by different Reptiles such as crocodiles, alligators, certain turtles and snakes. Marine Habitat Animals like the Saltwater Crocodile and Marine Iguana inhabit seaside, travelling in and out of ocean as necessary.

Reptile Reproduction These animals typically practice sexual reproduction with some specific species using asexual reproduction. I will keep researching before I switch over. If I find anything I will also update you. If you are nervous about feeding raw dog food then just feed him cooked. Try feeding the chicken and rice dog food recipe or the easy cooked dog food recipe. Your dog will love either and both are very nutritious. This is my first time on your website and I love that easy recipe with the eggshell and all!

Now I put the used eggshell in my stale bread, cracker mix for the birds as they need it for digestion but I never thught you could do that for dogs.

Thanks for letting other animal lovers know about the positive benefits of a natural food diet for our beloved pets. I mean really, if the commercial dog food is all that great and healthy then why does it say NOT fit for human consumption? Hmmm, now I have an issue with that! Treat our furry critters as we want to be treated also! Thank you so much and my 3 APBT just love their natural food fare!

They whine like your 2 didin the video but they are so healthy and happy and just full of energy. Yes they love fish especially salmon. What a life they have! God Bless you and yours. I have an 8 month old Cavachon. She started having diarrhea here and there about 6 weeks ago. We had her poop tested at the vet but no parasites. She had been eating Diamond Puppy. We switched to chicken and rice and diarrhea got better.

Interesting note, on chicken and rice, she no longer ate her poop. Whenever we tried to put her back on Diamond Puppy, diarrhea would come back.

So, back to chicken and rice. During that time, she ate part of a yard ornament and was given meds to make her vomit. After that, she had diarrhea even staying on chicken and rice. The vet gave her antidiarrheal meds for 10 days and it finally went away. Meanwhile, she was still on only chicken and rice. After several days with nodiarrhea, I tried to give her a little Diamond Puppy again mixed in with chicken and rice and it started to come back again. I came across your cooked dog food recipe.

I ordered Dinovite and Licochops. Before making the full recipe, I gave her a little Dinovite in her chicken and rice for the past 3 days. Her diarrhea is back. I also caught her trying to eat her poop again. Not sure if there is something in the Dinovite that makes her want to eat her poop. I am currently making your cooked dog food recipe, but want to know your opinion on how to proceed since she will be starting while she already has some intestinal upset. Other than the diarrhea , she is acting happy and healthy.

Is her diarrhea watery or is she just having frequent softer stools? I would try her on the chicken and rice dog food recipe or the easy cooked dog food recipe and follow the introductory methods. Then give her system time to adjust. She loves sweets and breads. She constantly has stomach issues. I give her a puppy multivitamin and she eats grass daily. She gets treats that have no artificial flavors, colors or preserves. What I want to know is if there is anything else I can do to help her with the stomach issues.

Any info would be greatly appreciated. Try the easy cooked dog food recipe or the chicken and rice dog food recipe and see how she does. I have a MinPin, Grace, whom is 2 years old. She is absolutely our baby. Sometime in November, I was cutting the red ring off of our bologna.

I laid the small ring of paper on my table, and Grace ate the red paper. I have not seen her poop out the paper. Can she actually digest this paper or should I take her to the vet? I certainly do not want her to go through surgery, yet, I cannot stand to lose her.

I would appreciate any comment, as I am very concerned about my Grace. Hi — Thank you very much for your informative website. My husband and I own an 8. He has always been very healthy. I changed him to a home cooked diet of cooked chicken breast; brown rice and sweet potato. He loves the food; but was losing a lot of weight. I found your website about 2 weeks ago and substituted the rice for white potato in addition to adding hard boiled eggs. He is currently on Omega supplements; however his Vet recommended to supplement safflower oil for fat — I see that you recommend extra virgin coconut oil.

Although his weight is still in the healthy range; he has gone from 75 lbs to 65 lbs in the past 3 months since the diet change. His recent bloodwork is excellent and energy level is good — I just feel like he is very thin. I am concerned about giving him the right fats. Try adding the Supromega fish oil or Lickochops , both are great fat sources. Virgin coconut oil also does not stress the pancreas. Dear Ed what do you reccomend for a dog who has a high ph of 6 and is not producing enough acid on her own to keep from getting sturitve stones and is getting constant bladder infections she has gone through surgery to remove the stones and is a special deit of royal canin urinary so wet and dry and for six months was given a clean bill of health by her vet but now she has and infection again and crystals im being told by her vet that its time to possibles start her on a monthy antiboitic treat meant to hopefully get her system back on track which im really concerned about.

Neither have any known health problems and no skin issues. Can I start her on the raw diet right after that? Yes, cats can eat a raw diet safely just eliminate all the carbs because they have no use for them at all. I started him on a grain free kibble and mixed in raw meat with his food , enzymes a other supplements and for 4 years he has been fine. I do know that kibble and raw digest at different rate. I give him beef heart, tongue and liver. He has recovered nicely and became my service dog now at 9 I am training another and he is now in semi retirement he will never fully retire until he passes on.

Lately he has not been very good at eating his meals oh he is feed twice a day half in the a. GSD are prone to bloat. He will eat if I give him some of what I am eating and he will eat the raw meat alone so my question what to do about feeding a raw diet. I have 4 dogs and with the constant increase in meat prices it is hard to put all on a raw only diet. When you feed a raw meat and bones based diet bloat is not a problem.

This is because the raw maenad bonds not swell like kibble. Currently I am feeding my dogs raw chicken leg and thigh quarters. I grind them using the meat grinder I show on this site because both my dogs are missing teeth.

The chicken is 69 cents per pound. You must be logged in to post a comment. My name is Ed Lukacevic and I'm an incurable animal lover! I have spent my life working with birds, reptiles, horses and especially dogs.

Optimum nutrition for the animals in my care has been my passion. March 19, at 9: What about corn on the cob? Log in to Reply. Darcy, Can you tell me what you are feeding your dog? April 1, at 4: April 2, at 8: Marie, Dogs can eat the vegetables but not digest them well.

May 27, at 8: May 29, at 3: Christa, You may want to try the yeast starvation dog food recipe. February 4, at 9: February 5, at Natasha, Try feeding the chicken and rice dog food recipe , substitute sweet potato for the white rice. July 4, at 1: July 5, at 4: Chris, Are you feeding the easy cooked dog food recipe?

July 5, at 6: July 16, at 4: Chris, Just keep it up and see how she does. I forgot to mention that we also give her krill oil supplements as well. July 28, at 4: July 31, at 1: August 5, at 7: August 5, at 8: Carolyn, Sounds like a good idea but brace yourself for negative feedback.

September 5, at 1: July 30, at Grace, Dogs are easy vomiters. What is she eating now? August 22, at August 18, at 4: August 21, at 7: Linda, Switching between homemade dog food recipes does not require a fast. September 20, at 4: Jill, You may want to try the chicken and rice dog food recipe.

August 28, at September 3, at 8: September 4, at 5: September 10, at Jomahna, If you are nervous about feeding raw dog food then just feed him cooked. September 6, at 9: September 29, at 1: October 2, at 8: October 4, at October 6, at 9: Gail, Try the easy cooked dog food recipe or the chicken and rice dog food recipe and see how she does. January 4, at 9: January 5, at 8: February 16, at 8: Sorry, I forgot this question, is cooked beef hard on a dogs digestive system?

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