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Flamingos , three species of prion , and some ducks are filter feeders. It means the NPA is listened to and respected which in turn means the sector has a better chance of prospering as we approach Brexit. SOD aids in digestion and metabolism by helping to disperse vitamins and minerals into the blood stream to be absorbed by the body. Word order in sentences. The length of these processes is functionally important; longer uncinate processes increasing the mechanical advantage of the Mm. All this means very considerable work is undertaken for the organisation and the common good on a voluntary basis; complementing the excellent work that is delivered from the small team of dedicated staff that the NPA employs.

Example sentences containing 'poultry'

Definition of 'poultry'

Word origin of 'poultry'. Food and drink , meat You can refer to chickens, ducks, and other birds that are kept for their eggs and meat as poultry. The menu features roast chicken, duck, and other poultry. Poultry and game birds must be cooked thoroughly. The restaurant specializes in poultry dishes, including chicken, duck, and goose.

Example sentences containing 'poultry' These examples have been automatically selected and may contain sensitive content. And it is cutting 12 per cent off some meat and poultry prices. The Sun The group also trades frozen meat and poultry, much of which is sold to Africa. Times, Sunday Times We will work with farmers to increase the capacity for the production of meat and poultry.

The Sun The incident led to calls from animal welfare campaigners for a full inquiry into the poultry industry. Times, Sunday Times People have caught bird flu from being in close contact with sick or dead domestic poultry.

Times, Sunday Times Outdoor farming increases the risk of avian flu and the challenge to poultry farmers. Times, Sunday Times She no longer eats poultry or eggs or keeps chickens.

Times, Sunday Times Want a delicious marinade for meats and poultry? The Sun It makes clear that the poultry industry itself would suffer the most. Times, Sunday Times Eggs and poultry are safe to eat.

The following is the established format for referencing this article: Estimated number of birds killed by house cats Felis catus in Canada. Avian Conservation and Ecology 8 2: ABSTRACT Predation by house cats Felis catus is one of the largest human-related sources of mortality for wild birds in the United States and elsewhere, and has been implicated in extinctions and population declines of several species.

However, relatively little is known about this topic in Canada. The objectives of this study were to provide plausible estimates for the number of birds killed by house cats in Canada, identify information that would help improve those estimates, and identify species potentially vulnerable to population impacts.

The avian nature of the brain and inner ear of Archaeopteryx. Birds as models of aging in biomedical research.

A statistical test of unbiased evolution of body size in birds. Why most birds are small - a macro-ecological approach to the evolution of avian body size. Why do pigeon feathers repel water? Hydrophobicity of pennae, Cassie-Baxter wetting hypothesis and Cassie-Wenzel capillary-induced wetting transition. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science Rival species recast significance of 'first bird.

New evidence on the colour and nature of the isolated Archaeopteryx feather. A new time tree reveals Earth history's imprint on the evolution of modern birds.

Activity of three muscles associated with the uncinate processes of the giant Canada Goose Branta canadensis maximus.

Journal of Experimental Biology Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B The biology of color. Tenectomy of the supracoracoideus muscle to deflight Pigeons Columba livia and Cockatiels Nymphicus hollandicus. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery I nfrared analysis of contour feathers: Journal of Thermal Biology Journal of Anatomy Mesozoic aviary takes form. The hand of birds revealed by early ostrich embryos.

From frond to fan: Archaeopteryx and the evolution of short-tailed birds. An old controversy solved: Trends in Ecology and Evolution Foraging modes of Mesozoic birds and non-avian theropods.

A sport-physiological perspective on bird migration: On the animals which are most nearly intermediate between the birds and reptiles. Cladistics and the origin of birds: The distribution of integumentary structures in a feathered dinosaur. Anatomy and histochemistry of flight muscles in a wing-propelled diving bird, the Atlantic Puffin, Fratercula arctica. Journal of Morphology Pentadactyl ground state of the avian wing.

Ultrasonographic imaging of the Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis intertarsal joint. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine From snout to beak: Theropod diversity and the refinement of avian characteristics.

A well-preserved Archaeopteryx specimen with theropod features. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds. Origin of avian genome size and structure in non-avian dinosaurs. Archaeopteryx and the origin of birds. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 8: Development and evolutionary origin of feathers: Journal of Experimental Zoology Coherent scattering of ultraviolet light by avian feather barbs.

A comprehensive phylogeny of birds Aves using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Increasing awareness of avian ecological function.

Comparative intralimb coordination in avian bipedal locomotion. Ruddy Turnstones Arenaria interpres rapidly build pectoral muscle after raptor scares. Journal of Avian Biology De Goede and A.

Realized heritability and repeatability of risk-taking behaviour in relation to avian personalities. A solution to the problem of the homology of the digits in the avian hand. An integrative approach to understanding bird origins. The smallest known non-avian theropod dinosaur. The developmental biology of feather follicles. Fossilized melanosomes and the colour of Cretaceous dinosaurs and birds. A bizarre Jurassic maniraptoran from China with elongate ribbon-like feathers. The origin and early evolution of birds: Beitrage zur mechanik der atmung bei den v ögeln in stand und flug.

Aufgrund anatomischer-physiologisher und experimenteller Studien. With jagged teeth and raptor-like features, the feathered Archaeopteryx is unlike any modern species of bird Image: When contact angle increases, interfacial tension between liquid and solid feather increases.

Developmental stages of chick wings in dorsal view. Macroevolutionary patterns in the evolutionary radiation of archosaurs Tetrapoda: However, Archaeopteryx possessed asymmetrical flight feathers on its wings and tail, together with a wing feather arrangement shared with modern birds.

This suggests some degree of powered flight capability but, until now, little was understood about the extent to which its brain and special senses were adapted for flight. A reconstruction of the braincase and endocasts of the brain and inner ear suggest that Archaeopteryx closely resembled modern birds in the dominance of the sense of vision and in the possession of expanded auditory and spatial sensory perception in the ear.

An enlarged forebrain suggests that it had also developed enhanced somatosensory integration with these special senses demanded by a lifestyle involving flying ability. The model hypothesizes the origin and diversification of feathers proceeded through a series derived evolutionary novelties in developmental mechanisms within the tubular feather germ and follicle: Stage I —The origin of an undifferentiated tubular collar and feather germ yielded the first feather, a hollow cylinder.

Stage II —The origin of differentiated barb ridges resulted in a mature feather with a tuft of unbranched barbs and a basal calamus emerging from a superficial sheath. Stage IIIa —The origin of helical displacement of barb ridges and the new barb locus resulted in a pinnate feather with an indeterminate number of unbranched barbs fused to a central rachis.

Stage IIIb —The origin of peripheral barbule plates within barb ridges yielded a feather with numerous branched barbs attached to a basal calamus. Stage IV —The origin of differentiated proximal and distal barbules created the first closed, pennaceous vane.

Distal barbules grew terminally hooked pennulae to attach to the simpler, grooved proximal barbules of the adjacent barb. Stage Va —Lateral displacement of the new barb locus by differential new barb ridge addition to each side of the follicle led to the growth of a closed pennaceous feather with an asymmetrical vane resembling modern rectrices and remiges.

Stage Vb —Division and lateral displacement of the new barb loci yielded opposing, anteriorly and posteriorly oriented patterns of helical displacement producing a main feather and an afterfeather with a single calamus. The afterfeather could have evolved at any time following Stage IIIb, but likely occurred after Stage IV based on modern afterfeather morphology.

Also see the ' Feather evolution ' page. Bakshi Jehangir - www. Avian Plumage Color Prum et al. No exclusively blue or UV-colored pigments are known in vertebrates, but various carotenoid pigments in bird feathers produce UV wavelengths in combination with human-visible yellow, orange, or red colors.

Ultraviolet structural colors of feathers can be produced by two types of structures. Primarily iridescent colors are produced by arrays of melanin granules in feather barbules. Those structural colors are created by coherent scattering, or constructive interference, of light waves scattered from the layers of melanin granules in barbules.

A few species of hummingbirds and European Starlings are known to produce UV hues with coherently scattering melanin arrays in feather barbules. The most commonly distributed UV hues, however, are structural colors produced by light scattering from the spongy medullary layer of feather barbs.

To date, primarily UV hues have been documented in the feather barbs of Chalcopsitta cockatoos Psittacidae and Myiophonus thrushes Turdidae. Extensively UV hues with a peak reflectance in the human-visible blue range have been observed in feather barbs of Blue Tits Parus caeruleus , Bluethroats Luscinia svecica , and Blue Grosbeak.

In addition, Prum et al. The structural UV hues of feather barbs, like other barb structural colors, are produced by the keratin air matrix of the spongy medullary layer of the barb ramus. However, the precise physical mechanism by which the human-visible and UV barb colors are produced remains controversial.

Analysis of the spongy medullary keratin of UV-colored feather barbs of Myiophonus caerulea by Prum et al. Bird embryos have 5 fingers -- The developmental origin of digits in the wings of birds has been hotly debated for more than a century. Larsson and Wagner have shown unequivocally that five digits are present during the early development of chickens. The earliest stage of digits is a condensation of mesenchymal cells and digit I is, thus, transiently present during development.

This establishes that three digits in the wings of birds are digits II—IV. However, theropod dinosaurs are assumed to have had digits I—III.

That leaves three possible scenarios: In birds, the high intensity and long duration of migratory flights could result in significant muscle damage, possibly due to metabolic factors e.

They found that plasma CK activity was significantly higher in migrating Western Sandpipers a non-synchronous, short-hop migrant than in non-migrants. Similarly, for Bar-tailed Godwits a synchronous, long-jump migrant , plasma CK activity was highest immediately after arrival from a — km flight from West Africa to The Netherlands, and declined before departure for arctic breeding areas.

Juvenile Western Sandpipers making their first southward migration had higher plasma CK activity than adults. These results indicate that muscle damage does occurs during migration, and that it is exacerbated in young, relatively untrained birds.

Thus, avian flight muscles appear to be superbly adapted to high intensity exercise, and likely possess morphological, physiological and biochemical mechanisms to prevent damage e. Avian personalities -- Personalities are general properties of humans and other animals. Different personality traits are phenotypically correlated, and heritabilities of personality traits have been reported in humans and various animals.

To show that risk-taking behavior has a genetic component in a natural bird population, van Oers et al. They found a realized heritability of With these results, the authors show that risk-taking behavior is linked to exploratory behavior, and provide evidence for the existence of avian personalities.

In sum, birds have genetically determined personalities that can be observed in a variety of ecological circumstances.

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