Price system


Textile industry in Bangladesh
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2010 Standard Occupational Classification System

The garment sector has provided employment opportunities to women from the rural areas that previously did not have any opportunity to be part of the formal workforce. This has given women the chance to be financially independent and have a voice in the family because now they contribute financially. However, women workers face problems. Most women come from low income families. Low wage of women workers and their compliance have enabled the industry to compete with the world market.

Women are paid far less than men mainly due to their lack of education. But, pressure from buyers to abide by labor codes has enabled factories to maintain satisfactory working conditions. Garment workers have protested against their low wages. The firsts protests broke out in , and since then, there have been periodic protests by the workers. Many textile factories in Bangladesh often compromise worker health and safety because of the tough pressure from the ordering companies to make tight deadlines.

Management will often push workers in order to ensure that an order is fulfilled. This poses a problem as workers have almost no avenues with which to file a complaint. Almost none of the factories have any sort of human resources department and local officials often turn a blind eye to violations. Without any structure like a formalized union, many lack the ability to speak of injustices either from lack of knowledge or fear of losing economic security.

The lackluster enforcement of any safety mechanisms creates hazardous working conditions and negligible workers' rights even though Bangladesh has been a member of the International Labour Organization ILO since and the ILO been operating a Bangladeshi office since After more than a century of industrial experience and development of national regulation and international conventions, workers in Bangladesh continue to lose their health and lives while contributing in the national enrichment.

The scenario becomes worse when it comes to women workers. The female workers are exposed to different occupational health hazards such as work environment hazards, physical hazards and mental hazards. The work environment hazards include long working hours, absence of leave facilities, congested and overcrowded working conditions, absence of health facilities and safety measures, absence of staff amenities, lack of safe drinking water.

On the other hand, the physical hazards include exposures to toxic agents, awkward postures and repetitive motion. Exposure to sexual, verbal and psychological harassment and violence at their work places are the some of the common mental health hazards.

Musculoskeletal disorders have been identified as an important concern among textile workers. These complaints are related to highly repetitive movements, awkward postures in seated positions, repetitive hand and arm movements, prolonged working hours without adequate breaks and poorly designed work stations.

These risk factors result in adverse health outcomes of the workers such as musculoskeletal complaints of neck, back, hands, shoulders and lower limbs. Most of the female workers in garments factories work as sewing operators, sewing operator helper, cutting personnel and finishing personnel. This results in strain on the neck and back, and eventually to pain. The flattened lumbar spine may cause back fatigue, disc degeneration and back injuries. Sarder and colleagues found that seats in garment factories were devoid of a backrest, which would allow intermittent short breaks for resting the upper body from bending.

Moreover, workers experience excessive hand work that involves gripping and pinching with the arm in constrained postures which causes wrist pain. Sewing machine operators are involve in highly repetitive movements of the elbows and wrists. These risk factors have a negative impact not only on the musculoskeletal health, but also on the medical cost, efficiency, and optimal performance on activities of daily living. Minimizing ergonomic risk factors through ergonomic intervention for workers is often neglected in many of the countries.

Thus, there are high rate of musculoskeletal symptoms in different body parts among sewing machine operators which points out for proper interventions. The workers should be educated about the significance of postures on their health so that they do not neglect the instructions. Up to the mids there was little evidence available that suggested that improvement involving ergonomics principles have been implemented in garment factories in South East Asia.

The following recommendations can be implemented as solutions to reduce burden of musculoskeletal disorders among worker in the garment industries:. There are a wide range of chemicals utilized in textile production for dyeing and printing, which these workers can be exposed to.

These chemicals include but are not limited to bleaching agents and azo dyes. This was due to their high stability in light and washing as well as resistance to microbial activity. Once this sensitization has occurred, an individual becomes more susceptible to developing allergic disease on subsequent contact with the offending agent.

While as of there was no evidence to suggest that most dyestuffs then in use in these industries were harmful at the levels workers were generally exposed to, there was concern with long term or accidental over-exposure. Additionally, studies have demonstrated concerns regarding exposure to textile dyes and occupational bladder cancer due to aniline dye intermediates such as beta-naphthylamine and benzidine, which has long been identified as a human urinary carcinogen. As of , screening recommendations for detection of long term health effects from dye exposure included hematologic testing to look for microcytic anemia and leukopenia.

Sandblasting is a technique used on denim to give the garment a worn look. Silicosis often leads to more severe lung diseases such as; lung cancer, Bronchitis, and Tuberculosis.

They found workers inside poorly ventilated factories being exposed to respirable silica dust 20 times that of the recommended safety levels. When the study concluded, over one third of the sandblasters had lab-confirmed silicosis and two workers had died during the study. Exposing the dangers of sandblasting has forced government agencies to step in and attempt to contain and control the amount of dust exposure. One method of containing the silica dust is the addition of water. Another popular chemical involved in an alternate sandblasting technique is Potassium Permanganate or KMnO4.

It is an odorless, dark purple, sand-like oxidizing agent. In the process of sand blasting, a worker sprays the potassium permanganate on a specific area on the denim garment with a hose or a brush.

When the potassium permanganate dries, bleach is sprayed on top of the previously treated area to neutralize potassium permanganate and is then washed a second time. When potassium permanganate comes in contact with the skin, it can cause irritation, deep burns, rashes and even dying of the skin. Inhalation of potassium permanganate can irritate the respiratory tract and can even lead to chronic lung diseases such as asthma, silicosis, and pulmonary edema.

One work environment health risk that often gets overlooked is noise induced hearing loss NIHL. Asia has, over the last 50 years, seen a significant growth in the manufacturing of both primary products and finished products.

Some simple measures which could be implemented on machinery would include such actions as decreasing noise and creating noise barriers. For workers, the use of personal protective equipment, as well as the establishing maximum daily exposures, can go a long way to mitigate worker exposures to chronic noise.

In garment entrepreneurs had a reputation for shirking custom duties, evading corporate taxes, remaining absent in capital markets, avoiding social projects such as education, healthcare, and disaster relief but, as argued by authors Quddus and Salim, these entrepreneurs took the risks needed to build the industry.

Many workers profited from the increase, but it was also expected to attract more young girls to factories. Other major fires in and , resulting in hundreds of accidental deaths, included those at That's It Sportswear Limited and the fire at Tazreen Fashions Ltd. Major foreign buyers looking for outsourcing demand compliance-related norms and standards regarding a safe and healthy work environment which includes fire-fighting equipment, evacuation protocols and mechanisms and appropriate installation of machines in the whole supply-chain.

RMG insiders in Bangladesh complain about the pressure to comply and argue that RMG factory owners are hampered by a shortage of space in their rental units.

Members of the U. House of Representatives have also urged the U. Trade Representative 's office to complete its review of Bangladesh's compliance with eligibility requirements for the Generalized System of Preferences. Five deadly incidents from November through May brought worker safety and labor violations in Bangladesh to world attention putting pressure on big global clothing brands such as Primark , Loblaw , Joe Fresh , Gap, Walmart , Nike , Tchibo , Calvin Klein and Tommy Hilfiger , and retailers to respond by using their economic weight to enact change.

A fire broke out on 24 November , in the Tazreen Fashion factory in Dhaka [95] killing people and injuring Walmart director of ethical sourcing, Sridevi Kalavakolanu, asserted that the company would not agree to pay the higher cost, as such improvements in electrical and fire safety in the 4, factories would be a "very extensive and costly modification" and that "it is not financially feasible for the brands to make such investments.

It was likely the first time any garment factory owner in Bangladesh had been charged. On 24 April over textile workers factories making clothes for Western brands were killed when a garment factory collapsed.

The Savar building collapse was in the Rana Plaza complex, in Savar, an industrial corner 20 miles northwest of Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh.

It was the "world's deadliest industrial accident" since the Bhopal disaster in India in In spite of this factories stayed open to fill overdue orders. When generators were restarted after a power blackout the building caved in. Nine people were arrested including four factory owners, the owner of the complex and the engineer who warned of the crack in the building.

In June after a two-year investigation homicide charges were filed against 42 people in the collapse of a factory Rana Plaza that killed more than 1, people in April Sohel Rana , the building owner, Refat Ullah, mayor at the time of the incident along with owners of five garment factories located in the Rana Plaza, and "dozens of local council officials and engineers" were charged with culpable homicide, "which carries a maximum sentence of life in prison under Bangladeshi law.

Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association BGMEA is a recognised trade body that represents export oriented garment manufacturers and garment exporters of the country. The fundamental objective of BGMEA is to establish a healthy business environment for a close and mutually beneficial relationship between manufacturers, exporters and importers, thereby ensuring steady growth in the foreign exchange earnings of the country.

In its final report BGMEA pinned the blame on inspection officials who granted permits to factory owners to install heavy machinery on the two floors not authorized to exist in the first place and on local officials for neglecting to ensure proper oversight of building plans.

The report also indicated that building owner Sohel Rana may have been able to corrupt municipal officials by offering bribes. On 9 May eight people were killed when a fire broke out at a textile factory in an eleven-story building in the Mirpur industrial district owned by Tung Hai Group, a large garment exporter.

The president of the politically powerful textile industry lobby group, the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association BGMEA , told Reuters that "the Bangladeshi managing director of the company and a senior police officer were among the dead. Around companies - mostly from Europe - international and local trade unions, Bangladeshi employers, exporters and government are part of this agreement.

A spokesman stated that "Ten factories have been submitted to the Government Established Review Panel and most have been either closed completely or partially. In addition, international pressure from human rights organizations, labor organizations, NGOs, and consumers from Western nations pushed corporate retailers to play a larger role in protecting worker safety. The Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh , a legally binding document, obligates retailers to cooperate with safety inspections and provide financial assistance to building owners in order to ensure that the standards of such inspections are met.

It is a five-year independent and legally binding agreement between 26 North American companies that is still being enforced. So far, at least 25 cases have been brought to the alliance for review and four factories have officially been closed. One of the main concerns after the crises is the structural integrity of RMG and textile factories.

Beverage equipment includes the refrigerators, coolers, dispensing systems, and the dedicated electrical, tubing or piping for such equipment.

The dispensing system may be gravity, pump or gas driven. See also Refrigerated Structures. Includes all interior ceilings regardless of finish or décor; e. Includes formwork, reinforcement, concrete block, and pre-cast or cast-in-place work related to foundations and footings necessary for the proper setting of the building. The supporting concrete footings used to anchor gasoline pump canopies are inherently permanent structures and are classified as land improvements.

Includes adding and accounting machines, calculators, copiers, and duplicating machines. Excludes computers and computer peripheral equipment, see Computers. Interior and exterior doors, regardless of decoration, including but not limited to, double opening doors, overhead doors, revolving doors, mall entrance security gates, roll-up or sliding wire mesh or steel grills and gates, and door hardware such as doorknobs, closers, kick plates, hinges, locks, automatic openers, etc. Special lightweight, double action doors installed to prevent accidents in a heavily trafficked area.

For example, flexible doors, or clear or strip curtains used between stock and selling areas. They also effectively repel flying insects, dust, and pollutants.

Drive-through equipment includes order taking, merchandise delivery, and payment processing systems whether mechanical or electronic. Excludes building elements such as doors, bays, or windows. See also Walls — Exterior , and Windows for drive-through bays and windows. Includes all components of the building electrical system used in the operation or maintenance of the building or necessary to provide general building services such as electrical outlets of general applicability and accessibility, lighting, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and electrical wiring.

Special electrical connections which are necessary to and used directly with a specific item of machinery or equipment or connections between specific items of individual machinery or equipment; such as dedicated electrical outlets, wiring, conduit, and circuit breakers by which machinery and equipment is connected to the electrical distribution system.

Does not include electrical outlets of general applicability and accessibility. Elevators and escalators, which include handrails and smoke baffles, are permanently affixed to the building and intended to remain in place. They relate to the operation or maintenance of the building and are structural components. Energy management systems control all energy-using systems in a building, automatically checking occupancy schedules, reading temperatures, and re-circuiting light levels, causing all heating, cooling and lighting equipment to operate so as to minimize energy costs.

Includes, for example, detection devices such as smoke, motion and infrared devices, photocells, foil and contact switches, pressure switches, proximity alarms, sensors, alarm transmitting controls, data gathering panels, demand controllers, thermostats, computer controls, outside air economizers, occupancy sensors, electronic ballasts, and all related wiring and conduit. May also provide for fire and burglary protection. Signs posted along exit routes that indicate the direction of travel to the nearest exit.

These signs typically read "EXIT" and may have distinctive colors, illumination, or arrows indicating the direction to the exit. Includes sensing devices, computer controls, sprinkler heads, piping or plumbing, pumps, visual and audible alarms, alarm control panels, heat and smoke detection devices, fire escapes, fire doors, emergency exit lighting and signage, and wall mounted fire extinguishers necessary for the protection of the building.

Includes special fire detection or suppression systems directly associated with a piece of equipment. For example a fire extinguisher designed and used for protection against a particular hazard created by the business activity. Floor covering affixed with permanent adhesive, nailed, or screwed in place.

Examples include ceramic or quarry tile, marble, paving brick, and other coverings cemented, mudded, or grouted to the floor; epoxy or sealers; and wood flooring. Floor covering that is installed by means of strippable adhesives. For the retail industry, all vinyl composition tile VCT , sheet vinyl, and carpeting will be treated as not permanently attached and not intended to be permanent. Also includes flooring that is frequently moved and reused to create a department theme or seasonal display.

Includes concrete slabs and other floor systems. Floors include special treatments applied to or otherwise a permanent part of the floor. For example "super flat" finish, sloped drainage basins, raised perimeter, serving line curb, or cooler, freezer and garbage room floors. Includes all components of a central heating, ventilating and air conditioning system not specifically identified elsewhere.

HVAC systems that are installed not only to meet the temperature and humidity requirements of machinery, but are also installed for additional significant purposes, such as customer comfort and ventilation, are building components.

Only separate HVAC units that meet the sole justification test are included i. HVAC may meet the sole justification test even though it incidentally provides for the comfort of employees, or serves, to an insubstantial degree, areas where such temperature or humidity requirements are not essential.

Includes refrigeration units, condensers, compressors, accumulators, coolers, pumps, connecting pipes, and wiring for the mechanical equipment for climate controlled rooms, walk-in freezers, coolers, humidors and ripening rooms. Allocation of HVAC is not appropriate. A small retail outlet, often prefabricated, which acts like a fixed retail outlet yet is not permanent.

Kiosks may be used to retail merchandise such as newspapers and magazines, film and digital images, and food and beverages. Kiosks are also present in shopping centers or malls where they function as temporary or portable retail outlets for a variety of merchandise. Includes lighting such as recessed and lay-in lighting, night lighting, and exit lighting, as well as decorative lighting fixtures that provide substantially all the artificial illumination in the building or along building walkways.

Decorative light fixtures are light fixtures, such as neon lights or track lighting, which are decorative in nature and not necessary for the operation of the building. In other words, if the decorative lighting were turned off, the other sources of lighting would provide sufficient light for operation of the building.

If the decorative lighting is the primary source of lighting, then it is section property. Exterior lighting whether decorative or not is considered section property to the extent that the lighting relates to the maintenance or operation of the building.

This category includes building mounted lighting to illuminate walkways, entrances, parking, etc. Pole mounted or freestanding outdoor lighting system to illuminate sidewalks, parking or recreation areas. Plant grow lights or lighting that highlights only the landscaping or building exterior but not parking areas or walkways does not relate to the maintenance or operation of the building. Includes bumpers, permanently installed dock levelers, plates, seals, lights, canopies, and overhead doors used in the receiving and shipping of merchandise.

Decorative millwork is the decorative finish carpentry in a retail selling area. Examples include detailed crown moldings, lattice work placed over finished walls or ceilings, cabinets, cashwraps, counters and toppers.

The decorative millwork serves to enhance the overall décor of the retail store and is not related to the operation of the building. Cabinets and counters in a restroom are excluded from this category; see Restroom Accessories.

General millwork is all building materials made of finished wood e. Includes pre-built wooden items brought to the site for installation and items constructed on site such as restroom cabinets, door jambs, moldings, trim, etc. Friday, October 19, Reference Number: Thursday, June 14, Closing date: Monday, October 8, Reference Number: Thursday, June 28, Closing date: Friday, April 20, Closing date: Friday, November 2, Reference Number: Friday, August 3, Closing date: Wednesday, November 14, Reference Number: Monday, July 23, Closing date: Monday, November 5, Reference Number: Wednesday, June 6, Closing date: Tuesday, October 30, Reference Number: Friday, July 27, Closing date: Monday, October 22, Reference Number: Friday, September 14, This study analyses the requirements, constraints and trade-offs for a SatCom system for receiving multimedia services in a mobile, on-the-go e.

Wednesday, August 29, This activity is aimed at identifying and analysing services and applications for which the deployment of satcom mega-constellations could bring remarkable changes. Ka-band radio characterisation for SatCom services in arctic and high latitude regions Status Date: Thursday, August 9, Satellite services in the High North are utilised extensively for both communication purposes and for earth and climate observations.

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